Articles to read

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Easy Reading

"It has been recognized that an idol of a Hindu Temple is a juridical person or juristic entity18 and is often commonly referred to as a “deity”.19 The title to properties and endowments can vest in deities such as a Hindu idol, who has to act through a human agency (such as the Shebait).20 A Hindu idol not only has the power of suing and being sued, but can be treated as an “individual” who can be assessed for tax liability."

  • [https://www.jstor.org/stable/1558729 "John W. Tukey: His Life and Professional Contributions," David R. Brillinger, The Annals of Statistics , Dec., 2002, Vol. 30, No. 6 (Dec., 2002), pp. 1535-1575.
  • Ramseyer, JM (1995). "Oko v. Sako: Kyogen and litigation in medieval Japan". Law in Japan (0458-8584), 25 , p. 135.
  • Legarre, S. (2007). "The historical background of the police power. University of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law, 9(3), 745-796.

Hard Reading

  • Henry Kyburg, "Are there Degrees of Belief?" Journal of Applied Logic, 1(3-4), 139-149, 2003.
  • Henry Kyburg, "Keynes as Philosopher" History of Political Economy, 27 (Supplement): 7–32, 1995.

Statist. Med. 2008; 27:2865–2873 Published online 24 October 2007 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com) DOI: 10.1002/sim.3107. Andrew Gelman∗,†

Sascha O. Becker Luigi Pascali

61 Pages 22 Jan 2021, Michael J. Higdon.

Abstract: With the merger of law and equity almost complete, the idea of equity as a special part of our legal system or a mode of decision-making has fallen out of view. This Article argues that much of equity is best understood as performing a vital function. Equity and related parts of the law solve complex and uncertain problems—including interdependent behavior and misuses of legal rules by opportunists—and do so in a characteristic fashion: as meta-law. From unconscionability to injunctions, equity makes reference to, supplements, and sometimes overrides the result that law would otherwise produce, while primary law operates without reference to equity. Equity operates on a domain of fraud, accident, and mistake, and employs triggers such as bad faith and disproportionate hardship to toggle into a “meta”-mode of more open-ended scrutiny. This Article provides a theoretical account of how a hybrid law, consisting of relatively simple and general primary-level law and relatively intense and directed second-order equity can regulate behavior better through these specialized modes than would homogeneous law alone. The Article tests this theory on the ostensibly most unpromising aspects of equity, the traditional equitable maxims, as well as equitable fraud, defenses, and remedies. Equity as meta-law sheds light on how the fusion of law and equity spawned multifactor balancing tests, polarized interpretation, and led to the confusion of equity with standards, discretion, purely public law, and “mere” remedies. Viewing equity as meta-law also improves on the tradeoff between formalism and contextualism and ultimately promotes the rule of law.

  • "The Religious Commissions of the Bakongo,"

Wyatt MacGaffey Man , Mar., 1970, New Series, Vol. 5, No. 1 (Mar., 1970), pp. 27-38 https://www.jstor.org/stable/2798802.

  • Fiva, J H, and D M Smith (2018), “Political dynasties and the incumbency advantage in party-centered environments”, American Political Science Review 112(3): 1–7.
  • Folke, O, T Persson and J Rickne (2017), “Dynastic political rents? Economic benefits to relatives of top politicians”, Economic Journal 127(605): 495–517.
  • Acemoglu, D, G De Feo, G D De Luca and G Russo (2020), “War, socialism and the rise of Fascism: An empirical exploration”, NBER Working Paper 27854.

Political Economy

Other

Dal Bó, E, P Dal Bó and J Snyder (2009), “Political dynasties”, Review of Economic Studies 76(1): 115–42.

Ma, D (2004). "Growth, institutions and knowledge: a review and reflection on the historiography of 18th–20th century China". Australian economic history review (0004-8992), 44 (3), p. 259.

"From Divergence to Convergence: Reevaluating the History Behind China's Economic Boom," Loren Brandt, Debin Ma and Thomas G. Rawski, Journal of Economic Literature , MARCH 2014, Vol. 52, No. 1 pp. 45-123. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24433858

States and Development: Early Modern India, China, and the Great Divergence Bishnupriya Gupta Debin Ma Tirthankar Roy

 20 September 2016.

LAW AND ECONOMY IN TRADITIONAL CHINA: A "LEGAL ORIGIN" PERSPECTIVE ON THE GREAT DIVERGENCE," Debin Ma , https://personal.lse.ac.uk/MAD1/ma_pdf_files/DP8385.pdf.

"Foreign Education, Ideology, and the Fall of Imperial China," James Kai-sing KUNG† Alina Yue WANG‡ https://www.aeaweb.org/aea/2021conference/program/pdf/13683_paper_dhQ7DbF9.pdf?display. This paper is an example of one with links between text mentions of papers and the reference section. But not two-way.

"Millet, Rice, and Isolation: Origins and Persistence of the World’s Most Enduring Mega-State," James Kai-sing Kung= , Omer ¨ Ozak , Louis Putterman§ , and Shuang Shi¶ December 20, 2020. https://www.aeaweb.org/aea/2021conference/program/pdf/13681_paper_96AHSRfe.pdf?display . Covered in the Frieden Tuesday Lunch.

We propose and empirically test a theory for the endogenous formation and persistence of large

states, using China as an example. We suggest that the relative timing of the emergence of agricultural societies and their distance to each other set off a race between autochthonous state-building projects and the expansion of neighboring (proto-)states. Using a novel dataset on the Chinese state’s historical presence, the timing of agricultural adoption, social complexity, climate, and geography across 1×1 degree grid cells in East Asia, we provide empirical support for this hypothesis. Specifically, we find that on average, cells that adopted agriculture earlier or were close to the earliest archaic state in East Asia (Erlitou) remained longer under Sinitic control. In contrast, earlier adoption of agriculture decreased the persistent control of the Chinese state in cells farther than 2.8 weeks of travel from Erlitou.